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Rise Of Nations Script | Smart Sell, Unit ESP ...

"Robotics technology is the key element of future production. This is already clear in the automobile industry and other relatively large scale productions. But now, robot co-workers are creating new opportunities and applications, particularly in the medium and small size enterprises, through easier set-up and reasonable costs. The IFR introduces these applications and paves the way towards potential future markets."

Rise Of Nations Script | Smart Sell, Unit ESP ...

The President is committed to working with Congress to sign legislation that lowers costs for American families, reduces the deficit, and expands the productive capacity of the American economy. That means cutting costs for prescription drugs, healthcare premiums, child care, long-term care, housing, and college; reducing energy costs by combatting climate change and accelerating the transition to a clean energy economy; supporting families by providing access to free, high-quality preschool, up to two years of free community college, nutritious food at school and resources to purchase food over the summer months, and paid family and medical leave and by continuing the enhanced Child Tax Credit and Earned Income Tax Credit; and providing health coverage to millions of uninsured Americans. The President believes these proposals must be paired with reforms that ensure corporations and the wealthiest Americans pay their fair share, including ensuring that they pay the taxes they already owe.

Just In Time. JIT normally describes operational or production methods based on minimizing stock levels, the aim of which is to reduce capital employed in stock, which also has knock-on benefits to reducing storage space, decreasing dependence on logistics, easier supply chain management, and better overall quality. That's the theory anyway. JIT is a lot trickier than it sounds. Certain industries and technologies are far more amenable than others to Just In Time management, and the concept is typically most useful when viewed as a benefit or flexibility arising from strategic improvement within a business operation, than a cause of improvement itself, which it is not. Introducing Just In Time methods without creating the required efficiencies and reliabilities beforehand is not a viable change. There is no room for errors when employing Just In Time management methods, so where an operation is incapable of accommodating JIT methods the description 'disaster waiting to happen' is more apt. Be mindful of this risk whenever you see such examples or suggestions. JIT management requires total commitment to quality and efficiency or the supply chain breaks down and operations come to a halt. The term and methodology were developed within the total quality management field by the Japanese as a next step on from 'materials requirements planning' (MRP). The Japanese original terminology is 'kanban', and it is a vital part of the 'lean production' process methodology. The aim of kanban is actually zero inventory. JIT was and is used successfully by highly efficient manufacturing corporations, notably the Japanese, and has been enabled by computerization especially to analyse and manage timings rather than stock levels. Noted authors to have covered the subject include Edwards Deming, Taiichi Ohno, and Yasuhiro Monden. More generally, similar Just In Time principles can be applied to other functions besides manufacturing and stock and materials management; really any activity where cost and resource can be saved by minimizing leeway and contingencies relating to supply deadlines. The term arises in formal and cynical variations by adding suffixes with the initial letters of the particular Just In Time (or dangerously starved) activity or resource, for example: JITS = Just In Time Stock, JITT = Just In Time Training, JITIA = Just In Time International Aid, etc. Humorous antonyms include JTL = Just Too Late, and the frustratingly JTFL = Just Too Flipping Late.

Massive Open Online Course/Courses. The term is relatively recent, apparently emerging first in 2008. MOOC is commonly pluralized - MOOCs - in references to the education market/industry and trends within education. According to Wikipedia 2012, "...the term MOOC was coined in 2008 by Dave Cormier, Manager of Web Communication and Innovations at the University of Prince Edward Island, and Senior Research Fellow Bryan Alexander of the National Institute for Technology in Liberal Education in response to an open online course designed and led by George Siemens, associate director, Technology Enhanced Knowledge Research Institute at Athabasca University and Stephen Downes, Senior Researcher at The National Research Council (Canada)..." A MOOC (a sort of VLE - Virtual Learning Environment) tends to have certain characteristics, although the concept is new and developing and subject to change, not least because some early market entrants/pioneers are commercially underpinned. MOOCs typically comprise the following elements: 'higher education' or 'further education', i.e., in the college/university space, not schooling for children; accessible via the web; free to learners (although some MOOCs require fees); available to/used by very big numbers of learners (from hundreds up to potentially millions per course); the learning is mainly learner-driven/controlled; registrations and certifications are (so far) less formal than in conventional further/higher education (although we can expect this aspect to become progressively more rigorous over time, and certain MOOCs and MOOC providers definitely require registration). MOOCs - and the concept itself - potentially represent a very big part of future further/higher education, especially for the 'mass market' of learners not wanting to be solicitors or doctors, etc., and especially considering the arguably declining and pressurized costs/value/quality of education in traditional 'bricks and mortar' universities, which, just like traditional books, newspapers, recorded music, retailing, etc., is an older, more rigid and expensive delivery model when competing with vastly more efficient supply/services available digitally via the web. MOOC critics and detractors may suggest that learning, like other forms of communication and relationships, always works best when conducted 'face-to-face' or at least in the physical presence of a teacher, and that the university life experience cannot be replaced by online activities. In many situations this is very true, except that an entire global generation is now growing up using phone/computer/tablet/digital systems for managing virtually every significant aspect of their lives. Future generations simply will not need the face-to-face contact that past generations did, just as nowadays we don't need horses for transport, and young people don't need watches to know the time. People living a few generations ago would never have imagined that the telephone (never mind email and texting) would completely eclipse the centuries-old tradition of writing letters. Picture-house/cinema customers in their millions never considered TV or radio as a threat. Even when computers first emerged commercially in the 1960s they remained purely a business/commercial tool for decades because no-one considered they could have a purpose for ordinary people. Now most children (other than those in genuine poverty) possess a smartphone which can outperform a business mainframe computer of the 1990s. So MOOCs - or something very similar - are very probably the long-term future of the main parts of higher/further education. MOOCs could also easily become very significant in teaching very young people. Young people find and use things that are useful, whether they are supposed to or not. The MOOC model will no doubt alter (probably financially, and the technology will become more sophisticated), but a big part of the future of higher/further education (for teachers and lecturers too) is online for sure. So perhaps we should begin thinking about what to do with all these university buildings everywhere.. They could help solve the homelessness problem, for example. (It is maybe not wholly coincidental that MOOC finds itself very close in dictionary listings and glossaries to MOODLE below, which is a closely related and often integrated system within the MOOC concept.)

This graphic catalogs the rise of the U.S. dollar as the dominant international reserve currency, and the recent efforts by various nations to de-dollarize and reduce their dependence on the U.S. financial system.

Even though scalability and speed of scaling of nuclear plants have historically been high in many nations, such rates are currently not achieved anymore. In the 1960s and 1970s, France implemented a programme to rapidly get 80% of its power from nuclear in about 25 years (IAEA, 2018)124, but the current time lag between the decision date and the commissioning of plants is observed to be 10-19 years (Lovins et al., 2018)125. The current deployment pace of nuclear energy is constrained by social acceptability in many countries due to concerns over risks of accidents and radioactive waste management (Bruckner et al., 2014)126. Though comparative risk assessment shows health risks are low per unit of electricity production (Hirschberg et al., 2016)127, and land requirement is lower than that of other power sources (Cheng and Hammond, 2017)128, the political processes triggered by societal concerns depend on the country-specific means of managing the political debates around technological choices and their environmental impacts (Gregory et al., 1993)129. Such differences in perception explain why the 2011 Fukushima incident resulted in a confirmation or acceleration of phasing out nuclear energy in five countries (Roh, 2017)130 while 30 other countries have continued using nuclear energy, amongst which 13 are building new nuclear capacity, including China, India and the United Kingdom (IAEA, 2017; Yuan et al., 2017)131.

Urban form impacts demand for energy (Sims et al., 2014)320 and other welfare related factors: a meta-analysis of 300 papers reported energy savings of 26 USD per person per year attributable to a 10% increase in urban population density (Ahlfeldt and Pietrostefani, 2017)321. Significant reductions in car use are associated with dense, pedestrianized cities and towns and medium-density transit corridors (Newman and Kenworthy, 2015; Newman et al., 2017)322 relative to low-density cities in which car dependency is high (Schiller and Kenworthy, 2018)323. Combined dense urban forms and new mass transit systems in Shanghai and Beijing have yielded less car use (Gao and Newman, 2018)324 (see Box 4.9). Compact cities also create the passenger density required to make public transport more financially viable (Rode et al., 2014; Ahlfeldt and Pietrostefani, 2017)325 and enable combinations of cleaner fuel feedstocks and urban smart grids, in which vehicles form part of the storage capacity (Oldenbroek et al., 2017)326. Similarly, the spatial organization of urban energy influenced the trajectories of urban development in cities as diverse as Hong Kong, Bengaluru and Maputo (Broto, 2017)327. 041b061a72

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